As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 16, 2022

Registration No. 333-                 

 

 

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

 

FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

 

Shift Technologies, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   5500   82-5325852
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  (IRS Employer
Identification No.)

 

290 Division Street, Suite 400
San Francisco, California 94103-4234
(855) 575-6739
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

 

Ryan Lawrence
Shift Technologies, Inc.
290 Division Street, Suite 400
San Francisco, California 94103-4234
(855) 575-6739
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

 

with copies to:

Martin C. Glass
Jenner & Block LLP
1155 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10036-2711
(212) 891-1672

 

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box ☒

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer     Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer     Smaller reporting company  
        Emerging growth company  

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and is subject to change. We may not sell or offer these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is declared effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated March 16, 2022

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

Rights

 

This prospectus relates to the offer and sale from time to time, in one or more offerings, together or separately, by Shift Technologies, Inc. (the “Company”) of shares of its Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 (the “Class A common stock”), preferred stock, debt securities, warrants or any combination of the foregoing, either individually or as units composed of one or more of the other securities. We may also issue rights to purchase the securities offered in this prospectus. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities. The aggregate public offering price of all securities issued by us under this prospectus may not exceed $300,000,000.

 

Each time we sell a particular class or series of securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. You should read carefully this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference herein or therein before you invest in any of our securities.

 

The specific terms of any securities to be offered, and the specific manner in which they may be offered, will be described in one or more supplements to this prospectus. This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of any of these securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. Before investing, you should carefully read this prospectus and any related prospectus supplement.

 

Our Class A common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SFT.” On March 15, 2022, the last reported sale price of our Class A common stock was $1.93 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Capital Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement. Prospective purchasers of our securities are urged to obtain current information as to the market prices of our securities, where applicable.

 

These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters, dealers, or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis.  See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus. We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of our securities in a prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement.

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements.

 

You should read this prospectus and any amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.

 

Investing in our securities involves risks. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus as well as those contained in the supplemental risk factors contained in any applicable prospectus supplement and our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and our most recently filed Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

Neither the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

The date of this prospectus is               , 2022.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS   ii
PROSPECTUS SUMMARY   1
RISK FACTORS   2
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS   3
USE OF PROCEEDS   5
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION   6
DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES   8
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK   9
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES   12
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS   18
DESCRIPTION OF UNITS   19
DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS   20
FORM OF SECURITIES   21
LEGAL MATTERS   22
EXPERTS   22
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE   23

 

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell from time to time in one or more offerings of Class A common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or as units comprised of a combination of one or more of the other securities in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell any type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain more specific information about the terms of that offering.

 

This prospectus does not contain all of the information included in the registration statement. For a more complete understanding of the offering of the securities, you should refer to the registration statement, including its exhibits. We may add, update or change in a prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus any of the information contained in this prospectus or in the documents we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. This prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplement, any related free writing prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, will include all material information relating to the applicable offering. You should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the additional information described under “Where You Can Find Additional Information; Incorporation by Reference” in making your investment decision.

 

We have not authorized any dealer, agent or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or an accompanying prospectus supplement, or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, if any, do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, the accompanying prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus, if any, constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference (as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date), even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered or securities are sold on a later date.

 

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference in this prospectus were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreements, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

 

This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of our securities, unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement. To the extent there are inconsistencies between any prospectus supplement, this prospectus and any documents incorporated by reference, the document with the most recent date will control.

 

As permitted by the rules and regulations of the SEC, the registration statement, of which this prospectus forms a part, includes additional information not contained in this prospectus. You may read the registration statement and the other reports we file with the SEC at the SEC’s web site or at the SEC’s offices described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

 

Unless otherwise indicated, any reference to Shift, or as “we”, “us”, or “our” refers to Shift Technologies, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries (“Shift” or the “Company”).

 

ii

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

 

This summary highlights certain information about us, this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and the information appearing elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before making an investment decision. You should read this entire prospectus carefully, including the information referred to under the heading “Risk Factors” of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement relating to a specific security, along with the financial statements and other documents incorporated by reference before making an investment decision. See also the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” These risks could materially affect our business, results of operations or financial condition and affect the value of our securities. You could lose all or part of your investment.

 

Overview

 

The Company is a leading end-to-end ecommerce platform transforming the used car industry with a technology-driven, hassle-free customer experience. The Company’s mission is to make car purchase and ownership simple — to make buying or selling a used car fun, fair, and accessible to everyone. The Company provides comprehensive, technology-driven solutions throughout the car ownership lifecycle: finding the right car, having a test drive brought to you before buying the car, a seamless digitally-driven purchase transaction including financing and vehicle protection products, an efficient, digital trade-in/sale transaction, and a vision to provide high-value support services during car ownership. Each of these steps is powered by the Company’s software solutions, mobile transactions platform, and scalable logistics, combined with our centralized inspection, reconditioning & storage centers, called hubs.

 

Risk Factors

 

There are a number of risks related to our business and our securities that you should consider before making an investment decision. You should carefully consider all the information presented in the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2 of this prospectus and the other information contained in this prospectus. Before making any investment decision, you should carefully consider these risks as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Background

 

Insurance Acquisition Corp. (“IAC”) was formed in March 2018 as a special purpose acquisition company for the purpose of effecting a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition, stock purchase, reorganization or other similar business combination, with one or more businesses or assets (the “initial business combination”). Shift was launched in 2014 and is an auto ecommerce platform that enables customers to buy, sell and test drive cars and purchase ancillary products and services. On October 13, 2020, IAC acquired Shift (which we refer to as “the Merger”) and changed its name to Shift Technologies, Inc. in connection with the Merger. Prior to the Merger, IAC’s common stock, units and warrants traded on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “INSU,” “INSUU” and “INSUW,” respectively. Pursuant to the Merger, the Company continued the listing of its common stock and warrants on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbols “SFT” and “SFTTW,” respectively, effective October 15, 2020. Since January 2021, the Company does not have any publicly registered warrants issued and outstanding.

 

Presentation of Financial Operating Data

 

The Merger was accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Under this method of accounting, IAC, who was the legal acquirer in the Merger, was treated as the “acquired” company for financial reporting purposes and Shift was treated as the accounting acquirer. This determination was primarily based on Shift having a majority of the voting power of the Company, Shift’s senior management comprising substantially all of the senior management of the Company, the relative size of Shift compared to IAC, and Shift’s operations comprising the ongoing operations of the Company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Merger was treated as the equivalent of a capital transaction in which Shift was issuing stock for the net assets of IAC. The net assets of IAC are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded. Operations prior to the Merger are those of Shift.

 

Emerging Growth Company

 

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the “JOBS Act”), and we may take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies, including, but not limited to, not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

 

Further, Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies (that is, those that have not had a registration statement under the Securities Act declared effective or do not have a class of securities registered under the Exchange Act) are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. We have elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, we, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard. This may make comparison of our financial statements with another public company which is neither an emerging growth company nor an emerging growth company which has opted out of using the extended transition period difficult or impossible because of the potential differences in accounting standards used.

 

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of: (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of our initial public offering, (b) in which we have total annual revenue of at least $1.07 billion, or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which means the market value of our common equity that is held by non-affiliates exceeds $700 million as of the end of the prior fiscal year’s second fiscal quarter; and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1.00 billion in non-convertible debt securities during the prior three-year period.

 

Corporate Information

 

The mailing address of the Company’s principal executive office is 290 Division Street, Suite 400, San Francisco, CA 94103 and the telephone number is (855) 575-6739. Our website address is www.shift.com. The information found on the website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this prospectus.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” in any applicable prospectus supplement and the risks described in the sections entitled “Risk Factors” in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and subsequent Quarterly Reports on form 10-Q, as filed with the SEC, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety, as well any amendment or updates to our risk factors reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC. Our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks mentioned elsewhere in this prospectus. For more information, see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.” Please also read carefully the section entitled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus, any prospectus supplement and the documents incorporated by reference herein and the exhibits attached hereto contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including statements regarding future events or our future results of operations, financial condition, business, strategies, financial needs, and the plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. In some cases forward-looking statements can be identified because they contain words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “likely,” “plan,” “possible,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or similar expressions and the negatives of those terms. Forward-looking statements are based on information available to our management as of the date of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement and our management’s good faith belief as of such date with respect to future events and are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that could cause actual performance or results to differ materially from those expressed in or suggested by the forward-looking statements, in particular the substantial risks and uncertainties related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Important factors that could cause such differences include, but are not limited to:

 

general business and economic conditions and risks related to the larger automotive ecosystem;

 

competition, and the ability of the Company to grow and manage growth profitably;

 

our history of losses and ability to achieve or maintain profitability in the future;

 

our ability to sustain our current rate of growth;

 

our ability to establish our software as a platform to be used by automotive dealers;

 

  risks relating to our inspection, reconditioning and storage hubs;

 

impacts of COVID-19 and other pandemics;

 

our reliance on third-party carriers for transportation:

 

our current geographic concentration where we provide reconditioning services and store inventory;

 

cyber-attacks or other privacy or data security incidents;

 

the impact of copycat websites;

 

failure to adequately protect our intellectual property, technology and confidential information;

 

our reliance on third-party service providers to provide financing;

 

the impact of federal and state laws related to financial services on our third-party service providers;

 

the impact of federal, state and local laws on our ability to obtain and maintain necessary dealer and financing licenses in the states in which we do business;

 

our ability to timely secure and maintain cost effective real estate locations in connection with the expansion of our business;

 

risks that impact the quality of our customer experience, our reputation, or our brand;

 

changes and ambiguity in the prices of new and used vehicles;

 

our ability to correctly appraise and price vehicles;

 

access to desirable vehicle inventory;

 

our ability to expeditiously sell inventory;

 

our ability to expand product offerings;

 

changes in applicable laws and regulations and our ability to comply with applicable laws and regulations;

 

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access to additional debt and equity capital;

 

changes in technology and consumer acceptance of such changes;

 

our reliance on internet search engines, vehicle listing sites and social networking sites to help drive traffic to our website;

 

any restrictions on the sending of emails or messages or an inability to timely deliver such communications;

 

seasonal and other fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations;

 

competition in the markets in which we operate;

 

changes in the auto industry and conditions affecting automotive manufacturers;

 

natural disasters, adverse weather events and other catastrophic events;

 

our dependence on key personnel;

 

our ability to rapidly hire and retain qualified personnel necessary to grow our business as anticipated;

 

increases in labor costs;

 

our reliance on third-party technology and information systems;

 

our use of open-source software;

 

claims asserting that our employees, consultants or advisors have wrongfully used or disclosed alleged trade secrets of their current or former employers;

 

significant disruptions in service on our platform;

 

impairment charges;

 

changes in interest rates;

 

volatility in the price of our common stock;

 

issuances of our common stock and future sales of our common stock;

 

our ability to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting; and

 

other economic, business and/or competitive factors, risks and uncertainties, including those described in the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 2.

 

Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties materialize, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from those anticipated, believed, estimated or expected. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We disclaim any obligation subsequently to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date of such statements or to reflect the occurrence of anticipated or unanticipated events, except as may be required under applicable securities law.

 

We qualify all of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement by the foregoing cautionary statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Unless stated otherwise in a prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from the sale of securities described in this prospectus will be used for general corporate purposes.

 

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities being offered hereby in one or more of the following ways from time to time:

 

through agents to the public or to investors;

 

to underwriters for resale to the public or to investors;

 

negotiated transactions;

 

block trades;

 

directly to investors; or

 

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

 

As set forth in more detail below, the securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

at negotiated prices.

 

We will set forth in a prospectus supplement the terms of that particular offering of securities, including:

 

the name or names of any agents or underwriters;

 

the purchase price of the securities being offered and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

 

any initial public offering price;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchanges or markets on which such securities may be listed.

 

Only underwriters named in an applicable prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in an offering, we will execute an underwriting agreement with such underwriters and will specify the name of each underwriter and the terms of the transaction (including any underwriting discounts and other terms constituting compensation of the underwriters and any dealers) in a prospectus supplement. The securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by one or more investment banking firms or others, as designated. If an underwriting syndicate is used, the managing underwriter(s) will be specified on the cover of the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own accounts and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to conditions precedent and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.

 

We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, with additional underwriting commissions or discounts, as may be set forth in a related prospectus supplement. The terms of any over-allotment option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for those securities.

 

If we use a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. The names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction will be specified in a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

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If we use a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale. The names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction will be specified in a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the common stock for whom they act as agents in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities, and any institutional investors or others that purchase common stock directly and then resell the securities, may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts or commissions received by them from us and any profit on the resale of the common stock by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against particular civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to such liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties (including the writing of options), or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with such a transaction, the third parties may, pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. If so, the third party may use securities borrowed from us or others to settle such sales and may use securities received from us to close out any related short positions. We may also loan or pledge securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to third parties, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or in a post-effective amendment.

 

To facilitate an offering of a series of securities, persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than have been sold to them by us. In those circumstances, such persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by purchasing in the open market or by exercising the over-allotment option granted to those persons. In addition, those persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to underwriters or dealers participating in any such offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Such transactions, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. We make no representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above, if implemented, may have on the price of our securities.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, each class or series of securities will be a new issue with no established trading market, other than our common stock, which is listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market. We may elect to list any other class or series of securities on any exchange or market, but we are not obligated to do so. It is possible that one or more underwriters may make a market in a class or series of securities, but the underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot give any assurance as to the liquidity of the trading market for any of the securities.

 

In order to comply with the securities laws of some U.S. states or territories, if applicable, the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and complied with.

 

Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids in accordance with Regulation M under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of these activities at any time.

 

Any underwriters who are qualified market makers on The Nasdaq Capital Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on The Nasdaq Capital Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security. If all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES

 

We may offer, from time to time, in one or more offerings, up to $300,000,000 of the following securities:

 

Class A common stock;

 

preferred stock;

 

debt securities;

 

warrants;

 

units;

 

rights; or

 

any combination of the foregoing securities.

 

The aggregate initial offering price of the offered securities that we may issue will not exceed $300,000,000.

 

This prospectus contains a summary of the general terms of the various securities that we may offer. The prospectus supplement relating to any particular securities offered will describe the specific terms of the securities, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Because the summary in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that you may find useful, you should read the documents relating to the securities that are described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference” to find out how you can obtain a copy of those documents.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will also contain the terms of a given offering, the initial offering price and our net proceeds. Where applicable, a prospectus supplement will also describe any material United States federal income tax consequences relating to the securities offered and indicate whether the securities offered are or will be quoted or listed on any quotation system or securities exchange.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

We have one class of securities registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended: our Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share.

 

The general terms and provisions of our Class A common stock are summarized below. This summary does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by express reference to, the provisions of our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (our “Charter”) and our Second Amended and Restated Bylaws (our “Bylaws”). Our Charter and our Bylaws have been filed as exhibits to our periodic reports filed with the SEC, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus. You should read our Charter and our Bylaws for additional information before you invest in any of our securities. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

 

Authorized Capital Stock

 

Our authorized capital stock consists of 500,000,000 shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 1,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share. As of March 11, 2022, there were 82,945,120 shares of our Class A common stock outstanding.

 

Our board of directors (the “Board of Directors”) has authority at any time and from time to time to issue preferred stock of one or more series and, in connection with the creation of each such series, to fix the voting rights (if any), designations, powers, preferences, the relative, participating, optional or other special rights and any qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of such series to the full extent permitted by our Charter and the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

Dividends

 

Subject to applicable law and any preferential rights of the holders of any then-outstanding shares of any series of preferred stock, holders of our Class A common stock are entitled to receive such dividends, if any, as from time to time may be declared by our Board of Directors. The declaration of dividends on our Class A common stock is a business decision to be made by our Board of Directors in its discretion from time to time based upon our revenues and earnings, if any, capital requirements and general financial condition, as well as the provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”) affecting the payment of dividends and distributions to stockholders and any other factors as our Board of Directors may consider relevant.

 

Voting Rights

 

Subject to applicable law or the resolution or resolutions of our Board of Directors providing for the issue of any series of preferred stock, the holders of outstanding shares of our Class A common stock shall exclusively possess voting power for the election of directors and for all other matters to be voted on by stockholders. Each holder of our Class A common stock is entitled to one vote for each share of Class A common stock standing in its name. Unless otherwise required by applicable law, any action at a meeting at which a quorum is present will be decided by a majority of the votes properly cast, except the election of directors will be decided by a plurality of votes cast. Our Charter does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors, with the result that the holders of more than 50% of the shares voted for the election of directors can elect all of the directors.

 

Liquidation

 

In the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the Company, after payment in full of the preferential amounts, if any, to be distributed to the holders of any then-outstanding shares of preferred stock having a preference over our common stock, the holders of our Class A common stock shall be entitled to share, ratably according to the number of shares of Class A common stock held by them, in all remaining assets of the Company available for distribution to our stockholders.

 

Preemptive or Other Rights

 

Holders of our Class A common stock have no preemptive or other subscription rights and there are no sinking fund or redemption provisions applicable to our Class A common stock.

 

Fully Paid and Nonassessable

 

All outstanding shares of our Class A common stock are fully paid and not liable to any further call or assessments by us.

 

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Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions

 

Our Charter, our Bylaws and the DGCL contain certain provisions that could delay or make more difficult an acquisition of control of us that is not approved by our Board of Directors, whether by means of a tender offer, open-market purchases, a proxy contest or otherwise. These provisions could have the effect of discouraging third parties from making proposals involving an acquisition or change of control of us, even though such a proposal, if made, might be considered desirable by a majority of our stockholders. These provisions also may have the effect of making it more difficult for third parties to cause the replacement of our current management without the concurrence of our Board of Directors. Set forth below is a description of various provisions contained in our Charter, our Bylaws and the DGCL that could impede or delay an acquisition of control of us that our Board of Directors has not approved. This description is intended as a summary only and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our Charter and our Bylaws, as well as the DGCL.

 

Delaware Anti-Takeover Statute

 

We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, Section 203 provides that a Delaware corporation with a class of voting stock listed on a national securities exchange or held of record by more than 2,000 stockholders may not engage in various business combination transactions with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that such stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:

 

a.our Board of Directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder prior to the time that stockholder became an interested stockholder;

 

b.upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced (excluding, for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) by certain employee stock plans); or

 

c.at or subsequent to such time the business combination is approved by our Board of Directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

 

In general, a “business combination” is broadly defined to include (i) any merger or consolidation of the corporation or any of its direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiaries with the interested stockholder; (ii) any sale, lease or other disposition (except proportionally as a stockholder of the corporation) to or with the interested stockholder of assets of the corporation or of any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation, which assets have a market value equal to 10% or more of either the aggregate market of all of the assets of the corporation determined on a consolidated basis or the aggregate market value of all the outstanding stock of the corporation; (iii) subject to certain exceptions, any transaction which results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation or by any of its direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiaries of any stock of the corporation or of such subsidiary to the interested stockholder; (iv) subject to certain exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation or any of its direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiaries which has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation or of any such subsidiary which is owned by the interested stockholder; and (v) subject to certain exceptions, any receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit, directly or indirectly (except proportionately as a stockholder of such corporation), of any loans, advances or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation or any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary. In general, an “interested stockholder” is any person (other than the corporation and any direct or indirect majority-owned subsidiary of the corporation) that (i) is the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation or (ii) is an affiliate or associate of the corporation and was the owner of 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation at any time within the three-year period immediately prior to the date of determination, and the affiliates and associates of such person.

 

The DGCL permits a corporation to “opt out” of, or choose not to be governed by, the restrictions in Section 203 of the DGCL by expressly stating so in its original certificate of incorporation (or in a subsequent amendment to its certificate of incorporation or bylaws approved by its stockholders). However, neither our Charter nor our Bylaws contains a provision electing to opt out of Section 203.

 

Advance Notice Requirements

 

Stockholders wishing to nominate persons for election to our Board of Directors at an annual meeting or to propose any business to be considered by our stockholders at an annual meeting must comply with certain advance notice and other procedures and requirements set forth in our Bylaws. Likewise, if our Board of Directors has (or if stockholders, in compliance with certain provisions of our Bylaws, have) determined that one or more directors shall be elected at a special meeting of stockholders, stockholders wishing to nominate persons for election to our Board of Directors at such special meeting must comply with certain advance notice and other procedures and requirements set forth in our Bylaws.

 

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Special Meetings

 

Our Bylaws provide that, subject to the rights of the holders of any then-outstanding shares of any series of preferred stock, a special meeting of stockholders may be called only by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, or the Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of the Board of Directors. Such meetings may not be called by any other person.

 

Number of Directors; Board Vacancies

 

Our Charter provides that the number of directors shall be fixed from time to time exclusively by our Board of Directors pursuant to a resolution adopted by a majority of our Board of Directors; however, the number of directors is eight (8). Vacancies and newly created directorships resulting from any increase in the authorized number of directors may be filled by a majority vote of the remaining directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Each director so appointed shall hold office for the remainder of the full term of the class of directors to which the new directorship was added or in which the vacancy occurred and until his or her successor has been elected and qualified, or until such director’s earlier death, removal or resignation.

 

Classified Board

 

Our Charter provides that our Board of Directors is divided into three classes of directors, with the classes as nearly equal in number as possible, and with the directors serving three-year terms. As a result, approximately one-third of our Board is elected each year. The classification of directors has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our Board.

 

Additional Authorized Shares of Capital Stock

 

The additional shares of authorized common stock and preferred stock available for issuance under our Charter could be issued at such times, under such circumstances and with such terms and conditions as to impede a change in control.

 

Amendments to Bylaws

 

Our Board of Directors may adopt, amend, alter or repeal our Bylaws, except with respect to the indemnifications provisions under Article VIII. Stockholders may adopt, amend, alter or repeal our Bylaws upon obtaining (i) the affirmative vote of the holders of at least a majority of all outstanding shares of capital stock of the Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors, voting together as a single class, and (ii) any other vote of the holders of any class or series of capital stock of the Corporation required by applicable law, our Charter or our Bylaws; provided, however, that an amendment with respect to the indemnifications provisions under Article VIII shall require the affirmative vote of the stockholders holding at least 66.7% of the voting power of all outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company.

 

No Written Consent of Stockholders

 

Our Charter and our Bylaws provide that any action required or permitted to be taken by stockholders must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders and may not be effected by any consent in writing by such stockholders.

 

Limitations on Liability and Indemnification of Officers and Directors

 

Our Charter limits the liability of its officers and directors and provides that the Company will indemnify its officers and directors, in each case, to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL.

 

Stock Exchange Listing

 

Our shares of Class A common stock are listed on The Nasdaq Capital Market under the symbol “SFT.”

 

Transfer Agent

 

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Continental Stock Transfer & Trust Company.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the prospectus supplement the extent to which the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.

 

We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.

 

The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.

 

As used in this section only, “Shift,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Shift Technologies, Inc., excluding its subsidiaries, unless expressly stated or the context otherwise requires.

 

General

 

The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).

 

We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:

 

the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);

 

the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;

 

the date or dates on which the principal of and premium, if any, on the debt securities is payable and/or the method of determination thereof;

 

the place or places where payments will be made;

 

the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;

 

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of such extension;

 

the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

the obligation, if any, of Shift to redeem or purchase debt securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in participation of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which (or manner of determining the same), the price or prices at which (or manner of determining the same), and the terms and

 

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conditions upon which, debt securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;

 

the form of the debt securities of the series, including the form of the trustee’s certificate of authentication for such series and any legends or endorsements to be placed thereon;

 

the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;

 

the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;

 

the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be U.S. Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;

 

if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;

 

the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or designated to be payable or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;

 

any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;

 

the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;

 

if other than the trustee, the identity of the trustee, the registrar, paying agent and custodian for the depositary;

 

if other than The Depository Trust Company, the identity of the depositary; and

 

any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities.

 

We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

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Transfer and Exchange

 

Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.

 

Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange.

 

You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.

 

Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary.

 

Covenants

 

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

 

No Protection In the Event of a Change of Control

 

Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.

 

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

 

We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

we are the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than us) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and

 

immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us.

 

Events of Default

 

“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:

 

default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of that default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);

 

default in the payment of principal of any debt security of that series at its maturity;

 

default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Shift and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;

 

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certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Shift; or

 

any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain of our indebtedness or that of our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. Such acceleration will not be effective until the earlier of (1) the acceleration of indebtedness under our senior secured credit facilities or (2) five business Days after receipt by us of written notice of such acceleration, at which time the principal, premium, if any, interest and any other monetary obligations on all the then outstanding series of debt securities will become due and payable immediately. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.

 

The indenture provides that the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in exercising such right of power. Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series.

 

No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and

 

the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered reasonable indemnity or security, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment.

 

The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the debt securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each holder of the debt securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities.

 

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Modification and Waiver

 

We and the trustee may modify and amend the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets;”

 

to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;

 

to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;

 

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;

 

to add covenants for the benefit of the holders or to surrender any right or power conferred upon Shift;

 

to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or

 

to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments.

 

We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:

 

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;

 

reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;

 

reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;

 

waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;

 

make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; and

 

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security.

 

Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration.

 

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Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

 

Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.

 

This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred.

 

Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:

 

we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and

 

any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).

 

The conditions include:

 

depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and

 

delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred.

 

Covenant Defeasance and Events of Default. In the event we exercise our option to effect covenant defeasance with respect to any series of debt securities and the debt securities of that series are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any Event of Default, the amount of money and/or U.S. government obligations or foreign government obligations on deposit with the trustee will be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on the debt securities of that series at the time of the acceleration resulting from the Event of Default. However, we shall remain liable for those payments.

 

Governing Law

 

The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York without regard to conflict of law principles that would result in the application of any law other than the law of the State of New York.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

We may issue warrants, including warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities or any combination of the foregoing. Warrants may be issued independently or as part of a unit with any other securities and may be attached to or separate from the underlying securities. We may issue warrants directly or under a warrant agreement to be entered into between us and a warrant agent, as detailed in the prospectus supplement relating to warrants being offered. Any warrant agent will act solely as our agent in connection with the warrants of a particular series and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust for or with any holders or beneficial owners of warrants.

 

A prospectus supplement relating to any warrants being offered will include specific terms relating to the offering, including a description of any other securities sold together with the warrants. These items will include:

 

the title of the warrants;

 

the aggregate number of the warrants;

 

the price or prices at which the warrants will be issued;

 

the designation, amount and terms of the common stock, preferred stock or debt securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants and procedures by which those numbers may be adjusted;

 

the designation and terms of the other offered securities, if any, with which the warrants are issued and the number of the warrants issued with each security;

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants will be separately transferable;

 

the price or prices at which the offered securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants may be purchased;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants shall commence and the date on which the right shall expire;

 

the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

any terms relating to the modification of the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

discussion of any material federal income tax considerations; and

 

any other material terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the transferability, exchange, exercise or redemption of the warrants.

 

The descriptions of the warrants in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement are summaries of the applicable provisions of the applicable agreements. These descriptions do not restate those agreements in their entirety and do not contain all of the information that you may find useful. We urge you to read the applicable agreements because they, and not the summaries, define your rights as holders of the warrants or any warrant units. For more information, please review the form of the relevant agreements, which will be filed with the SEC promptly after the offering of the warrants or warrant units and will be available as described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

 

18

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units consisting of one or more debt securities, shares of preferred stock, or shares of common stock, or any combination of such of our securities, as specified in a related prospectus supplement.

 

19

 

 

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

As specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, we may issue rights to purchase the securities offered in this prospectus to our existing stockholders, and such rights may or may not be issued for consideration. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any such rights. The description in the prospectus supplement will not purport to be complete and will be qualified in its entirety by reference to the documents pursuant to which such rights will be issued.

 

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

 

Each debt security, warrant, unit and right will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities will be issued in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants, units or rights represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

 

Registered Global Securities

 

We may issue the registered debt securities, warrants, units and rights in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

 

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

 

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

 

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, unit agreement or rights agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, unit agreement or rights agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, unit agreement or rights agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement, unit agreement or rights agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

 

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants, units or rights, represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of us, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents, the rights agents or any other agent of ours, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents, unit agents or rights agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

 

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

 

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent, rights agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

21

 

 

LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the issuance of the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be passed upon by Jenner & Block LLP, New York, NY. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements of Shift Technologies, Inc. appearing in Shift Technologies, Inc.’s Annual Report (Form 10-K) for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been audited by Deloitte & Touche LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report (which report expresses an unqualified opinion on the consolidated financial statements) which is incorporated by reference herein and elsewhere in the registration statement. Such financial statements have been so incorporated in reliance upon the report of such firm given upon their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

22

 

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

This prospectus and any prospectus supplement, which constitutes a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits which are part of the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities offered by this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits filed as part of the registration statement. Statements contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, concerning any of our contracts, agreements or other documents are not necessarily complete. If a contract or document has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement, we refer you to the copy of the contract or document that has been filed. Each statement in this prospectus, relating to a contract or document filed as an exhibit is qualified in all respects by the filed exhibit.

 

We are subject to the informational requirements of the Exchange Act and file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our filings with the SEC are available to the public on the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Those filings are also available to the public on, or accessible through, our website on the “Investor Relations” page at www.shift.com. The information we file with the SEC or contained on or accessible through our corporate website or any other website that we may maintain is not part of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, or the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided herein.

 

Incorporation by Reference

 

The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement (other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed).

 

This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 16, 2022.

 

  Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 12, 2022, February 24, 2022 and March 15, 2022.

 

The description of our Common Stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A, dated March 18, 2019, and any amendment or report filed with the SEC for the purpose of updating the description.

 

All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.

 

You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus (other than exhibits, unless they are specifically incorporated by reference in the documents) by writing or telephoning us at the following address:

 

Shift Technologies, Inc.

290 Division Street, Suite 400

San Francisco, California 94103-4234

(855) 575-6739

Attn: Secretary

 

Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

 

23

 

 

PART II. INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

 

The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses payable in connection with the sale of the shares of common stock being registered hereby. Except as otherwise noted, the registrant will pay all of the costs and expenses set forth in the following table. All amounts shown below are estimates, except the SEC registration fee:

 

SEC registration fee   $ 27,810
Transfer Agent and Registrar Fees and Expenses     *
Legal fees and expenses     *
Accounting fees and expenses     *
Miscellaneous expenses     *
Total   $ 27,810

 

*The foregoing sets forth the general categories of fees and expenses (other than underwriting discounts and commissions) that we anticipate we will incur in connection with the offering of securities under this registration statement. Because an indeterminate amount of securities is covered by this registration statement, certain expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of securities are not currently determinable. An estimate of the aggregate fees and expenses in connection with each sale of securities being offered will be included in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

 

Section 145 of the DGCL authorizes a court to award, or a corporation’s board of directors to grant, indemnity to directors and officers in terms sufficiently broad to permit such indemnification under certain circumstances for liabilities, including reimbursement for expenses incurred, arising under the Securities Act.

 

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation provides that our directors shall not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL. Our second amended and restated bylaws provide for indemnification of our directors and officers to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law.

 

The right to indemnification conferred by our second amended and restated bylaws also includes the right to be paid the expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a present or former director or officer in defending any civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative action, suit, or proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided, however, that if the Delaware law requires, an advancement of expenses incurred by a director or officer in his or her capacity as a director or officer shall be made only upon the Company’s receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director or officer to repay all amounts so advanced if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified for such expenses under our second amended and restated bylaws, or otherwise.

 

In addition, the Company entered into indemnification agreements with each of its directors and certain of its officers. These agreements require us to indemnify such persons to the fullest extent permitted under Delaware law against liabilities that may arise by reason of their service to the registrant, and to advance expenses incurred as a result of any action, suit, or proceeding against them as to which they could be indemnified.

 

The Company has in effect insurance policies for general officers’ and directors’ liability insurance covering all of its officers and directors.

 

Item 16. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

See the Exhibit Index on the page immediately preceding the signature page for a list of exhibits filed as part of this registration statement on Form S-3, which Exhibit Index is incorporated herein by reference.

 

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Item 17. Undertakings.

 

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

 

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement;

 

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

 

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(l)(i), (a)(l)(ii) and (a)(l)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.

 

(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i)if the registrant is relying on Rule 430B,

 

(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

II-2

 

 

(ii)if the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424 (§ 230.424 of this chapter);

 

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(6)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to section 13(a) or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(7)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

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EXHIBIT INDEX

 

Exhibit No.   Description
1.1*   Form of Underwriting Agreement.
2.1   Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated June 29, 2020, by and among Insurance Acquisition Corp., IAC Merger Sub, Inc., and Shift Technologies, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.1 to the Company’s Current Report on Form 8-K filed on June 29, 2020, File No. 001-38839).+
2.2   First Amendment to Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated August 19, 2020, by and among Insurance Acquisition Corp., IAC Merger Sub, Inc., and Shift Technologies, Inc. (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 2.2 to the Amendment No. 5 to Form S-4 filed on September 23, 2020, File No. 333-239896, which is included as Annex A).+
3.1   Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 14, 2020).
3.2   Second Amended and Restated Bylaws (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.2 to the Current Report on Form 8-K filed on October 14, 2020).
4.1*   Form of Preferred Stock Certificate and Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.
4.2   Form of Indenture.
4.3*   Form of Debt Security.
4.4*   Form of Warrant Agreement.
4.5*   Form of Warrant Instrument.
4.6*   Form of Rights Agreement.
4.7*   Form of Rights Certificate.
4.8*   Form of Unit Agreement.
5.1   Opinion of Jenner & Block LLP.
23.1   Consent of Deloitte & Touche LLP.
23.2   Consent of Jenner & Block LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1).
24.1   Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to this Registration Statement on Form S-3).
25.1#   Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
107   Filing Fee Table.

 

*To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the securities.
+The exhibits and schedules to this Exhibit have been omitted in accordance with Regulation S-K Item 601(b)(2). The Registrant agrees to furnish supplementally a copy of all omitted exhibits and schedules to the Securities and Exchange Commission upon its request.
#To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

 

II-4

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of San Francisco, State of California, on March 16, 2022.

 

  SHIFT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
   
  /s/ George Arison
  George Arison
  Chief Executive Officer and Chairman

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints George Arison and Oded Shein, and each of them, his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, each with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments, to this Registration Statement, and any registration statement relating to the offering covered by this Registration Statement and filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, and to file the same, with exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in persons, hereby ratifying and confirming all that each of said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his or her substitute or substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

/s/ George Arison   Chief Executive Officer and   March 16, 2022
George Arison   Chairman of the board of directors
(principal executive officer)
   
         
/s/ Oded Shein   Chief Financial Officer   March 16, 2022
Oded Shein   (principal financial officer and
principal accounting officer)
   
         
/s/ Toby Russell   Director   March 16, 2022
Toby Russell        
         
/s/ Victoria McInnis   Director   March 16, 2022
Victoria McInnis        
         
/s/ Kellyn Smith Kenny   Director   March 16, 2022
Kellyn Smith Kenny        
         
/s/ Jason Krikorian   Director   March 16, 2022
Jason Krikorian        
         
/s/ Emily Melton   Director   March 16, 2022
Emily Melton        
         
/s/ Adam Nash   Director   March 16, 2022
Adam Nash        
         
/s/ Manish Patel   Director   March 16, 2022
Manish Patel        

 

 

 

II-5

 

 

Exhibit 4.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SHIFT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

 

and

 

[________]

as Trustee

 

 

 

FORM OF INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [________]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    Page
Article 1. Definitions; Rules of Construction 1
     
Section 1.01. Definitions. 1
Section 1.02. Other Definitions. 5
Section 1.03. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act. 5
Section 1.04. Rules of Construction. 6
     
Article 2. The SECURITIES 7
     
Section 2.01. Issuable in Series. 7
Section 2.02. Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities. 7
Section 2.03. Execution and Delivery. 9
Section 2.04. Registrar and Paying Agent. 10
Section 2.05. Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust. 11
Section 2.06. Securityholder Lists. 11
Section 2.07. Transfer and Exchange. 11
Section 2.08. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities. 12
Section 2.09. Outstanding Securities. 12
Section 2.10. Treasury Securities. 13
Section 2.11. Temporary Securities. 13
Section 2.12. Cancellation. 13
Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest. 13
Section 2.14. Global Securities. 14
Section 2.15. CUSIP and ISIN Numbers. 15
     
Article 3. Redemption 15
     
Section 3.01. Notice to Trustee. 15
Section 3.02. Selection of Securities to be Redeemed. 15
Section 3.03. Notice of Redemption. 16
Section 3.04. Effect of Notice of Redemption. 16
Section 3.05. Deposit of Redemption Price. 17
Section 3.06. Securities Redeemed in Part. 17
     
Article 4. COVENANTS 17
     
Section 4.01. Payment of Principal and Interest. 17
Section 4.02. SEC Reports. 17
Section 4.03. Compliance Certificate. 18
Section 4.04. Stay, Extension and Usury Laws. 18
Section 4.05. Corporate Existence. 18
     
Article 5. SUCCESSORS 18
     
Section 5.01. When Company May Merge, Etc. 18
Section 5.02. Successor Corporation Substituted. 19

 

- i -

 

 

Article 6. Defaults and Remedies 19
     
Section 6.01. Events of Default. 19
Section 6.02. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment. 20
Section 6.03. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee. 21
Section 6.04. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim. 22
Section 6.05. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities. 22
Section 6.06. Application of Money Collected. 23
Section 6.07. Limitation on Suits. 23
Section 6.08. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest. 24
Section 6.09. Restoration of Rights and Remedies. 24
Section 6.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative. 24
Section 6.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver. 24
Section 6.12. Control by Holders. 24
Section 6.13. Waiver of Past Defaults. 25
Section 6.14. Undertaking for Costs. 25
     
Article 7. TRUSTEE 26
     
Section 7.01. Duties of Trustee. 26
Section 7.02. Rights of Trustee. 27
Section 7.03. Individual Rights of Trustee. 28
Section 7.04. Trustee’s Disclaimer. 28
Section 7.05. Notice of Defaults. 28
Section 7.06. Reports by Trustee to Holders. 28
Section 7.07. Compensation and Indemnity. 29
Section 7.08. Replacement of Trustee. 29
Section 7.09. Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc. 30
Section 7.10. Eligibility; Disqualification. 31
Section 7.11. Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company. 31
     
Article 8. Satisfaction and Discharge; DEFEASANCE 31
     
Section 8.01. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture. 31
Section 8.02. Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification. 32
Section 8.03. Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series. 32
Section 8.04. Covenant Defeasance. 34
Section 8.05. Repayment to Company. 35
Section 8.06. Reinstatement. 35
     
Article 9. Amendments and waivers 35
     
Section 9.01. Without Consent of Holders. 35
Section 9.02. With Consent of Holders. 36
Section 9.03. Limitations. 36
Section 9.04. Compliance with Trust Indenture Act. 37
Section 9.05. Revocation and Effect of Consents. 37
Section 9.06. Notation on or Exchange of Securities. 37
Section 9.07. Trustee Protected. 38

 

- ii -

 

 

Article 10. Miscellaneous 38
     
Section 10.01. Trust Indenture Act Controls. 38
Section 10.02. Notices. 38
Section 10.03. Communication by Holders with Other Holders. 40
Section 10.04. Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent. 40
Section 10.05. Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion. 40
Section 10.06. Rules by Trustee and Agents. 40
Section 10.07. Legal Holidays. 40
Section 10.08. No Recourse Against Others. 41
Section 10.09. Counterparts. 41
Section 10.10. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial. 41
Section 10.11. No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements. 41
Section 10.12. Successors. 41
Section 10.13. Severability; Entire Agreement 41
Section 10.14. Table of Contents, Headings, Etc. 42
Section 10.15. Judgment Currency. 42
Section 10.16. Force Majeure. 42
Section 10.17. U.S.A. PATRIOT Act. 42
     
Article 11. SINKING FUNDS 43
     
Section 11.01. Applicability of Article. 43
Section 11.02. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities. 43
Section 11.03. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund. 43
     
Article 12. Subordination 43
     
Section 12.01. Additional Subordination Terms. 43

 

- iii -

 

 

Reconciliation and tie between this Indenture and the Trust Indenture Act

 

§ 310(a)(1)     7.10  
(a)(2)       7.10  
(a)(3)       Not Applicable  
(a)(4)       Not Applicable  
(a)(5)       7.10  
(b)       7.10  
§ 311(a)     7.11  
(b)       7.11  
(c)       Not Applicable  
§ 312(a)     2.06  
(b)       10.03  
(c)       10.03  
§ 313(a)     7.06  
(b)(1)       7.06  
(b)(2)       7.06  
(c)(1)       7.06  
(d)       7.06  
§ 314(a)     4.02, 10.05  
(b)       Not Applicable  
(c)(1)       10.04  
(c)(2)       10.04  
(c)(3)       Not Applicable  
(d)       Not Applicable  
(e)       10.05  
(f)       Not Applicable  
§ 315(a)     7.01  
(b)       7.05  
(c)       7.01  
(d)       7.01  
(e)       6.14  
§ 316(a)     2.10  
(a)(1)(A)       6.12  
(a)(1)(B)       6.13  
(b)       6.08  
§ 317(a)(1)     6.03  
(a)(2)       6.04  
(b)       2.05  
§ 318(a)     10.01  

 

Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.

 

- iv -

 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [________], between Shift Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as issuer (the “Company”), and [________] (the “Trustee”).

 

Each party to this Indenture (as defined below) agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders (as defined below) of the Securities (as defined below) issued under this Indenture.

 

Article 1. Definitions; Rules of Construction

 

Section 1.01. Definitions.

 

[“Additional Amounts” means any additional amounts which are required hereby or by any Security, under circumstances specified herein or therein, to be paid by the Company in respect of certain taxes imposed on Holders specified herein or therein and which are owing to such Holders.]

 

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” when used with respect to any specified Person means the power to direct the management and policies of such Person, directly or indirectly, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” have the meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.

 

Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or a committee of such board duly authorized to act on behalf of such board.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Business Day” means, unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, any day other than a Saturday, a Sunday or any day on which banking institutions or trust companies in the City of New York, New York or the principal office of the Trustee are authorized or obligated by law, regulation or executive order to close or be closed.

 

Capital Stock” of any Person means any and all shares of, interests in, rights to purchase, warrants or options for, participations in, or other equivalents of, in each case however designated, the equity of such Person.

 

Close of Business” means 5:00 p.m., New York City time.

 

Common Stock” means the Class A common stock of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share, as of the date of this Indenture.

 

- 1 -

 

 

Company” means the Person named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture and, subject to Article 5, its successors and assigns.

 

Company Order” means a written request or order signed on behalf of the Company by one (1) of its Officers and delivered to the Trustee.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time this Indenture shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at [________], or such other address as the Trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company, or the principal corporate trust office of any successor trustee (or such other address as such successor trustee may designate from time to time by notice to the Holders and the Company).

 

Default” means any event that is, or after notice, passage of time or both, would be, an Event of Default.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Dollars” and “$” means the currency of The United States of America.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

 

Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of The United States of America.

 

Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

 

Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.02 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.

 

- 2 -

 

 

Holder” or “Securityholder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

 

Indenture” means this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.

 

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.

 

Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.

 

Officer” means the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer, any Assistant Treasurer, the Controller, the Secretary or any Vice-President of the Company.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate that is signed on behalf of the Company by one (1) of its Officers and that meets the requirements of Section 10.05.

 

Open of Business” means 9:00 a.m., New York City time.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing signed by legal counsel (including an employee of, or counsel to, the Company or any of its Subsidiaries) reasonably acceptable to the Trustee, that meets the requirements of Section 10.05, subject to customary qualifications and exclusions.

 

Person” or “person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or other agency or political subdivision thereof. Any division or series of a limited liability company, limited partnership or trust will constitute a separate “person” under this Indenture.

 

principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on[, and any Additional Amounts in respect of,] the Security.

 

Responsible Officer” means (A) any officer of the Trustee assigned by the Trustee having direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture; and (B) with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of, and familiarity with, the particular subject.

 

- 3 -

 

 

SEC” means the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

 

Securities Act” means the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securities” means any the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.01 and 2.02 hereof.

 

Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.

 

Significant Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any Subsidiary of such Person that constitutes, or any group of Subsidiaries of such Person that, in the aggregate, would constitute, a “significant subsidiary” (as defined in Rule 1-02(w) of Regulation S-X under the Exchange Act) of such Person.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (A) any corporation, association or other business entity (other than a partnership or limited liability company) of which more than fifty percent (50%) of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency, but after giving effect to any voting agreement or stockholders’ agreement that effectively transfers voting power) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees, as applicable, of such corporation, association or other business entity is owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such Person; and (B) any partnership or limited liability company where (i) more than fifty percent (50%) of the capital accounts, distribution rights, equity and voting interests, or of the general and limited partnership interests, as applicable, of such partnership or limited liability company are owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such Person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such Person, whether in the form of membership, general, special or limited partnership or limited liability company interests or otherwise; and (ii) such Person or any one or more of the other Subsidiaries of such Person is a controlling general partner of, or otherwise controls, such partnership or limited liability company.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended and as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “Trust Indenture Act” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.

 

Trustee” means the Person named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture in its capacity as such until a successor replaces it in accordance with the provisions of this Indenture and, thereafter, shall mean or include each Person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

 

- 4 -

 

 

U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, The United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

 

Section 1.02. Other Definitions.

 

Term  Defined in Section 
Bankruptcy Law   6.01 
Custodian   6.01 
Event of Default   6.01 
Judgment Currency   10.15 
Legal Holiday   10.07 
mandatory sinking fund payment   11.01 
New York Banking Day   10.15 
Notice Agent   2.04 
optional sinking fund payment   11.01 
Paying Agent   2.04 
Registrar   2.04 
Required Currency   10.15 
successor person   5.01 

 

Section 1.03. Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.

 

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the Trust Indenture Act, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following Trust Indenture Act terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

 

Commission” means the SEC.

 

indenture securities” means the Securities.

 

indenture security holder” means a Securityholder.

 

indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

 

indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

 

obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.

 

- 5 -

 

 

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the Trust Indenture Act, defined by the Trust Indenture Act reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the Trust Indenture Act and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.

 

Section 1.04. Rules of Construction.

 

For purposes of this Indenture:

 

(A) a term has the meaning assigned to it;

 

(B) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

(C) “or” is not exclusive;

 

(D) “including” means “including without limitation”;

 

(E) “will” expresses a command;

 

(F) the “average” of a set of numerical values refers to the arithmetic mean of such numerical values;

 

(G) a merger involving, or a transfer of assets by, a limited liability company, limited partnership or trust will be deemed to include any division of or by, or an allocation of assets to a series of, such limited liability company, limited partnership or trust, or any unwinding of any such division or allocation;

 

(H) words in the singular include the plural and in the plural include the singular, unless the context requires otherwise;

 

(I) “herein,” “hereof” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision of this Indenture, unless the context requires otherwise;

 

(J) references to currency mean the lawful currency of the United States of America, unless the context requires otherwise;

 

(K) provisions apply to successive events and transactions; and

 

(L) the exhibits, schedules and other attachments to this Indenture are deemed to form part of this Indenture.

 

- 6 -

 

 

Article 2. The SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01. Issuable in Series.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

Section 2.02. Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.

 

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Section 2.02(A) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Sections 2.02(B) through 2.02(V)) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:

 

(A) the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;

 

(B) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

 

(C) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.07, 2.08, 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06);

 

(D) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

(E) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

(F) the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

 

- 7 -

 

 

(G) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(H) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(I) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

 

(J) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

 

(K) the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;

 

(L) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02;

 

(M) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

 

(N) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;

 

(O) if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

(P) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

 

(Q) the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;

 

(R) any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.02;  

 

(S) any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants set forth in Articles IV or V which applies to Securities of the Series;

 

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(T) any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

 

(U) the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed; and

 

(V) any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series.

 

All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.

 

Section 2.03. Execution and Delivery.

 

An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual or facsimile signature.

 

If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual or facsimile signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

 

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02, except as provided in Section 2.08.

 

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.02) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Section 10.04, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.04.

 

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The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith by its board of directors or trustees, executive committee or a trust committee of directors and/or vice-presidents shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

 

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

Section 2.04. Registrar and Paying Agent.

 

The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.02, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.02 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.

 

The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

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Section 2.05. Paying Agent to Hold Assets in Trust.

 

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities, and will notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such Default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all assets held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all assets held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the assets. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Securityholders of any Series of Securities all assets held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities.

 

Section 2.06. Securityholder Lists.

 

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with Trust Indenture Act § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten (10) days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within thirty (30) days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

Section 2.07. Transfer and Exchange.

 

When Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.06 or 9.06).

 

Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of, or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business fifteen (15) days immediately preceding the mailing of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the Close of Business on the day of such mailing, or (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part.

 

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Section 2.08. Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.

 

If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon its request the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.

In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.

 

Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.

 

Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.

 

Section 2.09. Outstanding Securities.

 

The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.

 

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.08, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

 

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The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.02.

 

Section 2.10. Treasury Securities.

 

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.

 

Section 2.11. Temporary Securities.

 

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.

 

Section 2.12. Cancellation.

 

The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirement of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.13. Defaulted Interest.

 

If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on a Series of Securities, it shall pay the defaulted interest, plus, to the extent permitted by law, any interest payable on the defaulted interest, to the persons who are Securityholders of the Series on a subsequent special record date. The Company shall fix the record date and payment date. At least ten (10) days before the special record date, the Company shall mail to the Trustee and to each Securityholder of the Series a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of interest to be paid. The Company may pay defaulted interest in any other lawful manner.

 

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Section 2.14. Global Securities.

 

(A) Terms of Securities. A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities.

 

(B) Transfer and Exchange. Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.07 of the Indenture and in addition thereto, any Global Security shall be exchangeable pursuant to Section 2.07 of the Indenture for Securities registered in the names of Holders other than the Depositary for such Security or its nominee only if (i) such Depositary notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such Global Security or if at any time such Depositary ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and, in either case, the Company fails to appoint a successor Depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act within ninety (90) days of such event or (ii) the Company executes and delivers to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable. Any Global Security that is exchangeable pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be exchangeable for Securities registered in such names as the Depositary shall direct in writing in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms.

 

Except as provided in this Section 2.14(B), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depositary, by a nominee of such Depositary to such Depositary or another nominee of such Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.

 

(C) Legend. Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

 

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to and is registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a person other than the Depositary or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depositary to a nominee of the Depositary, by a nominee of the Depositary to the Depositary or another nominee of the Depositary or by the Depositary or any such nominee to a successor Depositary or a nominee of such a successor Depositary.”

 

(D) Acts of Holders. The Depositary, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

 

(E) Payments. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.02, payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on any Global Security shall be made to the Holder thereof.

 

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(F) Consents, Declaration and Directions. Except as provided in Section 2.14(D), the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of such Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depositary or by the applicable procedures of such Depositary with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 2.15. CUSIP and ISIN Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” or “ISIN” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Holders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other elements of identification printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers.

 

Article 3. Redemption

 

Section 3.01. Notice to Trustee.

 

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company wants or is obligated to redeem prior to the Stated Maturity thereof all or part of the Series of Securities pursuant to the terms of such Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the redemption date and the principal amount of Series of Securities to be redeemed. The Company shall give the notice at least fifteen (15) days before the redemption date.

 

Section 3.02. Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, if less than all the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of the Series to be redeemed in any manner that the Trustee deems fair and appropriate, including by lot or other method, unless otherwise required by law or applicable stock exchange requirements, subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depositary. The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of the Series outstanding not previously called for redemption. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of the Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of the Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or whole multiples of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.02(J), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and the authorized integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities of a Series called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities of that Series called for redemption.

 

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Section 3.03. Notice of Redemption.

 

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, at least fifteen (15) days but not more than sixty (60) days before a redemption date, the Company shall mail a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder whose Securities are to be redeemed.

 

The notice shall identify the Securities of the Series to be redeemed and shall state:

 

(A) the redemption date;

 

(B) the redemption price;

 

(C) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

 

(D) if any Securities are being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities to be redeemed and that, after the redemption date and upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the original Security shall be issued in the name of the Holder thereof upon cancellation of the original Security;

 

(E) that Securities of the Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price;

 

(F) that interest on Securities of the Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on and after the redemption date unless the Company defaults in the deposit of the redemption price;

 

(G) the CUSIP or ISIN number, if any; and

 

(H) any other information as may be required by the terms of the particular Series or the Securities of a Series being redeemed.

 

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at its expense, provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee, at least three (3) days (unless a shorter time shall be acceptable to the Trustee) prior to the notice date, an Officer’s Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice.

 

Section 3.04. Effect of Notice of Redemption.

 

Once notice of redemption is mailed as provided in Section 3.03, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the redemption date and at the redemption price. Except as otherwise provided in the supplemental indenture, Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate for a Series, a notice of redemption may not be conditional. Upon surrender to the Paying Agent, such Securities shall be paid at the redemption price plus accrued interest to the redemption date.

 

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Section 3.05. Deposit of Redemption Price.

 

On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the redemption date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date.

 

Section 3.06. Securities Redeemed in Part.

 

Upon surrender of a Security that is redeemed in part, the Trustee shall authenticate for the Holder a new Security of the same Series and the same Maturity equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

 

Article 4. COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01. Payment of Principal and Interest.

 

The Company covenants and agrees for the benefit of the Holders of each Series of Securities that it will duly and punctually pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of that Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture. On or before 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the applicable payment date, the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of each Series in accordance with the terms of such Securities and this Indenture.

 

Section 4.02. SEC Reports.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee within fifteen (15) days after it files them with the SEC copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents, and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the SEC may by rules and regulations prescribe) which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; provided, however, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. The Company also shall comply with the other provisions of Trust Indenture Act § 314(a). Reports, information and documents filed with the SEC via the EDGAR system will be deemed to be delivered to the Trustee as of the time of such filing via EDGAR for purposes of this Section 4.02.

 

Delivery of reports, information and documents to the Trustee under this Section 4.02 are for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of the foregoing shall not constitute constructive or actual notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of their covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officer’s Certificates).

 

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Section 4.03. Compliance Certificate.

 

To the extent any Securities of a Series are outstanding, the Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company, an Officer’s Certificate stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during the preceding fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his/her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and is not in default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which the Officer may have knowledge).

 

The Company will, so long as any of the Securities are outstanding, deliver to the Trustee, within thirty (30) Business Days of any Officer becoming aware of any Default or Event of Default, an Officer’s Certificate specifying such Default or Event of Default and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

Section 4.04. Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.

 

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, plead, or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension or usury law wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture or the Securities; and the Company (to the extent it may lawfully do so) hereby expressly waives all benefit or advantage of any such law and covenants that it will not, by resort to any such law, hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law has been enacted.

 

Section 4.05. Corporate Existence.

 

Subject to Article V, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence and rights (charter and statutory); provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

Article 5. SUCCESSORS

 

Section 5.01. When Company May Merge, Etc.

 

The Company shall not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any person (a “successor person”) unless:

 

(A) the Company is the surviving corporation or the successor person (if other than the Company) is a corporation organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes the Company’s obligations on the Securities and under this Indenture; and

 

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(B) immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.

 

The Company shall deliver to the Trustee prior to the consummation of the proposed transaction an Officer’s Certificate to the foregoing effect and an Opinion of Counsel stating that the proposed transaction and any supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

Notwithstanding the above, any Subsidiary of the Company may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to the Company. Neither an Officer’s Certificate nor an Opinion of Counsel shall be required to be delivered in connection therewith.

 

Section 5.02. Successor Corporation Substituted.

 

Upon any consolidation or merger, or any sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.01, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation or into or with which the Company is merged or to which such sale, lease, conveyance or other disposition is made shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor person has been named as the Company herein; provided, however, that the predecessor Company in the case of a sale, conveyance or other disposition (other than a lease) shall be released from all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

 

Article 6. Defaults and Remedies

 

Section 6.01. Events of Default.

 

“Event of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officer’s Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

 

(A) default in the payment of any interest on any Security of that Series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of thirty (30) days (unless the entire amount of such payment is deposited by the Company with the Trustee or with a Paying Agent prior to 11:00 a.m., New York City time, on the 30th day of such period); or

 

(B) default in the payment of principal of any Security of that Series at its Maturity; or

 

(C) default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty of the Company in this Indenture (other than defaults pursuant to paragraphs (a) or (b) above or pursuant to a covenant or warranty that has been included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of Series of Securities other than that Series), which default continues uncured for a period of sixty (60) days after there has been given, by registered or certified mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the Holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series a written notice specifying such default or breach and requiring it to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder; or

 

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(D) the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

(i) commences a voluntary case,

 

(ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

(iii) consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

(iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

(v) generally is unable to pay its debts as the same become due; or

 

(E) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

(i) is for relief against the Company in an involuntary case,

 

(ii) appoints a Custodian of the Company or for all or substantially all of its property, or

 

(iii) orders the liquidation of the Company,

 

(F) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.02(R).

 

The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code or any similar Federal or State law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Section 6.02. Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.

 

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing (other than an Event of Default referred to in Section 6.01(d) or (e)) then in every such case the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may declare the principal amount (or, if any Securities of that Series are Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such Securities) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all of the Securities of that Series to be due and payable immediately, by a notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by Holders), and upon any such declaration such principal amount (or specified amount) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, shall become immediately due and payable. Such acceleration will not be effective until the earlier of (1) the acceleration of indebtedness under the Company’s senior secured credit facilities or (2) five (5) Business Days after receipt by the Company of written notice of such acceleration, at which time the principal, premium, if any, interest and any other monetary obligations on all the then outstanding Securities of that Series will become due and payable immediately. If an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(d) or (e) shall occur, the principal amount (or specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding Securities shall ipso facto become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or any Holder.

 

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At any time after such a declaration of acceleration with respect to any Series has been made and before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the Trustee as hereinafter in this Article provided, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if all Events of Default with respect to Securities of that Series, other than the non-payment of the principal and interest, if any, of Securities of that Series which have become due solely by such declaration of acceleration, have been cured or waived as provided in Section 6.13.

 

No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.03. Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

The Company covenants that if

 

(A)Default is made in the payment of any interest on any Security when such interest becomes due and payable and such Default continues for a period of thirty (30) days, or

 

(B)Default is made in the payment of principal of any Security at the Maturity thereof, or

 

(C)Default is made in the deposit of any sinking fund payment, if any, when and as due by the terms of a Security,

 

then, the Company will, upon demand of the Trustee, pay to it, for the benefit of the Holders of such Securities, the whole amount then due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest and, to the extent that payment of such interest shall be legally enforceable, interest on any overdue principal and any overdue interest at the rate or rates prescribed therefor in such Securities, and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel.

 

If the Company fails to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, may institute a judicial proceeding for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, may prosecute such proceeding to judgment or final decree and may enforce the same against the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities and collect the moneys adjudged or deemed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities, wherever situated.

 

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If an Event of Default with respect to any Securities of any Series occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce its rights and the rights of the Holders of Securities of such Series by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any such rights, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement in this Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted herein, or to enforce any other proper remedy.

 

Section 6.04. Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.

 

In case of the pendency of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, arrangement, adjustment, composition or other judicial proceeding relative to the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or the property of the Company or of such other obligor or their creditors, the Trustee (irrespective of whether the principal of the Securities shall then be due and payable as therein expressed or by declaration or otherwise and irrespective of whether the Trustee shall have made any demand on the Company for the payment of overdue principal or interest) shall be entitled and empowered, by intervention in such proceeding or otherwise,

 

(A) to file and prove a claim for the whole amount of principal and interest owing and unpaid in respect of the Securities and to file such other papers or documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and of the Holders allowed in such judicial proceeding, and

 

(B) to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims and to distribute the same,

 

and any custodian, receiver, assignee, trustee, liquidator, sequestrator or other similar official in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Holder to make such payments to the Trustee and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Holders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07.

 

Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Holder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities or the rights of any Holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Holder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.05. Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.

 

All rights of action and claims under this Indenture or the Securities may be prosecuted and enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of the Securities or the production thereof in any proceeding relating thereto, and any such proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for the payment of the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, be for the ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities in respect of which such judgment has been recovered.

 

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Section 6.06. Application of Money Collected.

 

Any money or property collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such money or property on account of principal or interest, upon presentation of the Securities and the notation thereon of the payment if only partially paid and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

First: To the payment of all amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.07; and liability or expense to the Trustee that may result from the Trustee’s following such direction.

 

Second: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid for principal of and interest on the Securities in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal and interest, respectively; and

 

Third: To the Company.

 

Section 6.07. Limitation on Suits.

 

No Holder of any Security of any Series shall have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to this Indenture, or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless:

 

(A)such Holder has previously given written notice to the Trustee of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

 

(B)the Holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series shall have made written request to the Trustee to institute proceedings in respect of such Event of Default in its own name as Trustee hereunder;

 

(C)such Holder or Holders have offered to the Trustee indemnity or security satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by the Trustee in compliance with such request;

 

(D)the Trustee for sixty (60) days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity has failed to institute any such proceeding; and

 

(E)no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series;

 

it being understood, intended and expressly covenanted by the Holder of every Security with every other Holder and the Trustee that no one or more of such Holders shall have any right in any manner whatever by virtue of, or by availing of, any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of any other of such Holders, or to obtain or to seek to obtain priority or preference over any other of such Holders or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal and ratable benefit of all such Holders of the applicable Series.

 

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Section 6.08. Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision in this Indenture, the Holder of any Security shall have the right, which is absolute and unconditional, to receive payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on such Security on the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date) and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment, and such rights shall not be impaired without the consent of such Holder.

 

Section 6.09. Restoration of Rights and Remedies.

 

If the Trustee or any Holder has instituted any proceeding to enforce any right or remedy under this Indenture and such proceeding has been discontinued or abandoned for any reason, or has been determined adversely to the Trustee or to such Holder, then and in every such case, subject to any determination in such proceeding, the Company, the Trustee and the Holders shall be restored severally and respectively to their former positions hereunder and thereafter all rights and remedies of the Trustee and the Holders shall continue as though no such proceeding had been instituted.

 

Section 6.10. Rights and Remedies Cumulative.

 

Except as otherwise provided with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities in Section 2.08, no right or remedy herein conferred upon or reserved to the Trustee or to the Holders is intended to be exclusive of any other right or remedy, and every right and remedy shall, to the extent permitted by law, be cumulative and in addition to every other right and remedy given hereunder or now or hereafter existing at law or in equity or otherwise. The assertion or employment of any right or remedy hereunder, or otherwise, shall not, to the extent permitted by law, prevent the concurrent assertion or employment of any other appropriate right or remedy.

 

Section 6.11. Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any Holder of any Securities to exercise any right or remedy accruing upon any Event of Default shall impair any such right or remedy or constitute a waiver of any such Event of Default or an acquiescence therein. Every right and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or to the Holders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as may be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Holders, as the case may be.

 

Section 6.12. Control by Holders.

 

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that:

 

(A)such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture,

 

(B)the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction,

 

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(C)subject to the provisions of Section 6.01, the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability, and

 

(D)prior to taking any action as directed under this Section 6.12, the Trustee shall be entitled to indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

Section 6.13. Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The Holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may on behalf of the Holders of all the Securities of such Series waive any past Default hereunder with respect to such Series and its consequences, except a Default in the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security of such Series (provided, however, that the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from such acceleration). Upon any such waiver, such Default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

Section 6.14. Undertaking for Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each Holder of any Security by his acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Company, to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Holder, or group of Holders, holding in the aggregate more than 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series, or to any suit instituted by any Holder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of or interest on any Security on or after the Maturity of such Security, including the Stated Maturity expressed in such Security (or, in the case of redemption, on the redemption date).

 

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Article 7. TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01. Duties of Trustee.

 

(A)If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of such person’s own affairs.

 

(B)Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

 

(i)The Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others.

 

(ii)In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; however, in the case of any such Officer’s Certificates or Opinions of Counsel which by any provisions hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall examine such Officer’s Certificates and Opinions of Counsel to determine whether or not they conform to the form requirements of this Indenture.

 

(C)The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own bad faith, its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(i)This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section.

 

(ii)The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

 

(iii)The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it with respect to Securities of any Series in good faith in accordance with the direction of the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee, under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series in accordance with Section 6.12.

 

(D)Every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee is subject to paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of this Section.

 

(E)The Trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any right or power unless it receives indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power.

 

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(F)The Trustee shall not be liable for interest on any money received by it except as the Trustee may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

(G)No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to risk its own funds or otherwise incur any financial liability in the performance of any of its duties, or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if adequate indemnity against such risk is not assured to the Trustee in its satisfaction.

 

(H)The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections and immunities as are set forth in paragraphs (e), (f) and (g) of this Section and in Section 7.02, each with respect to the Trustee.

 

Section 7.02. Rights of Trustee.

 

(A)The Trustee may rely on and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any document (whether in its original or facsimile form) believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

 

(B)Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both. The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel.

 

(C)The Trustee may act through agents and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed with due care. No Depositary shall be deemed an agent of the Trustee and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any act or omission by any Depositary.

 

(D)The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers, provided that the Trustee’s conduct does not constitute bad faith, willful misconduct or negligence.

 

(E)The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection in respect of any action taken, suffered or omitted by it hereunder without bad faith, willful misconduct or negligence, and in reliance thereon.

 

(F)The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holders of Securities unless such Holders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities which might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

 

(G)The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document, but the Trustee, in its discretion, may make such further inquiry or investigation into such facts or matters as it may see fit.

 

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(H)The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities generally or the Securities of a particular Series and this Indenture.

 

(I)In no event shall the Trustee be liable to any person for special, punitive, indirect, consequential or incidental loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including but not limited to lost profits), even if the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage.

 

(J)The permissive right of the Trustee to take the actions permitted by this Indenture shall not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

 

Section 7.03. Individual Rights of Trustee.

 

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities and may otherwise deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee is also subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

 

Section 7.04. Trustee’s Disclaimer.

 

The Trustee makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities, it shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the Securities, and it shall not be responsible for any statement in the Securities other than its authentication.

 

Section 7.05. Notice of Defaults.

 

If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series and if it is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall mail to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of a Default or Event of Default within ninety (90) days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. Except in the case of a Default or Event of Default in payment of principal of or interest on any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as its corporate trust committee or a committee of its Responsible Officers in good faith determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of Securityholders of that Series.

 

Section 7.06. Reports by Trustee to Holders.

 

Within sixty (60) days after [ ] in each year, the Trustee shall transmit by mail to all Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear on the register kept by the Registrar, a brief report dated as of such [ ] 1, in accordance with, and to the extent required under, Trust Indenture Act § 313.

 

A copy of each report at the time of its mailing to Securityholders of any Series shall be filed with the SEC and each national securities exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when Securities of any Series are listed on any national securities exchange.

 

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Section 7.07. Compensation and Indemnity.

 

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree upon in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee upon request for all reasonable out of pocket expenses incurred by it. Such expenses shall include the reasonable compensation and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

 

The Company shall indemnify each of the Trustee and any predecessor Trustee (including the cost of defending itself) against any cost, expense or liability, including taxes (other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it except as set forth in the next paragraph in the performance of its duties under this Indenture as Trustee or Agent. The Trustee shall notify the Company promptly of any claim for which it may seek indemnity. Failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder, unless and to the extent that the Company is materially prejudiced thereby.

 

The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have one separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its consent, which consent will not be unreasonably withheld. This indemnification shall apply to officers, directors, employees, shareholders and agents of the Trustee.

 

The Company need not reimburse any expense or indemnify against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee or by any officer, director, employee, shareholder or agent of the Trustee through bad faith, willful misconduct or negligence.

 

To secure the Company’s payment obligations in this Section, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee, except that held in trust to pay principal of and interest on particular Securities of that Series.

 

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.01(d) or (e) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

The provisions of this Section shall survive the termination of this Indenture.

 

Section 7.08. Replacement of Trustee.

 

A resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor Trustee shall become effective only upon the successor Trustee’s acceptance of appointment as provided in this Section.

 

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The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company at least thirty (30) days prior to the date of the proposed resignation. The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to Securities of one or more Series if:

 

(A)the Trustee fails to comply with Section 7.10;

 

(B)the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee under any Bankruptcy Law;

 

(C)a Custodian or public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

 

(D)the Trustee becomes incapable of acting.

 

If the Trustee resigns or is removed or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor Trustee. Within one year after the successor Trustee takes office, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding Securities may appoint a successor Trustee to replace the successor Trustee appointed by the Company.

 

If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of any one or more Series does not take office within sixty (60) days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

 

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately after that, the retiring Trustee shall transfer all property held by it as Trustee to the successor Trustee subject to the lien provided for in Section 7.07, the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective, and the successor Trustee shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee with respect to each Series of Securities for which it is acting as Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee shall mail a notice of its succession to each Securityholder of each such Series. Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this Section 7.08, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.07 hereof shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee with respect to expenses and liabilities incurred by it for actions taken or omitted to be taken in accordance with its rights, powers and duties under this Indenture prior to such replacement.

 

Section 7.09. Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.

 

If the Trustee consolidates with, merges or converts into, or transfers all or substantially all of its corporate trust business to, another corporation, the successor corporation without any further act shall be the successor Trustee, subject to Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10. Eligibility; Disqualification.

 

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of Trust Indenture Act § 310(a)(1), (2) and (5). The Trustee shall always have a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with Trust Indenture Act § 310(b).

 

Section 7.11. Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.

 

The Trustee is subject to Trust Indenture Act § 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in Trust Indenture Act § 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Trust Indenture Act § 311(a) to the extent indicated.

 

Article 8. Satisfaction and Discharge; DEFEASANCE

 

Section 8.01. Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

This Indenture shall upon Company Order cease to be of further effect (except as hereinafter provided in this Section 8.01), and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute instruments acknowledging satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, when:

 

(A)Either:

 

(i)all Securities theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than Securities that have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that have been replaced or paid) have been delivered to the Trustee for cancellation; or

 

(ii)all such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation

 

(1)have become due and payable, or

 

(2)will become due and payable at their Stated Maturity within one year, or

 

(3)have been called for redemption or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption by the Trustee in the name, and at the expense, of the Company, or

 

(4)are deemed paid and discharged pursuant to Section 8.03, as applicable;

 

and the Company, in the case of (1), (2) or (3) above, has irrevocably deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds in trust an amount sufficient for the purpose of paying and discharging the entire indebtedness on such Securities not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, for principal and interest to the date of such deposit (in the case of Securities which have become due and payable on or prior to the date of such deposit) or to the Stated Maturity or redemption date, as the case may be;

 

(B)the Company has paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company; and

 

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(C)the Company has delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture have been complied with.

 

Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company to the Trustee under Section 7.07, and, if money shall have been deposited with the Trustee pursuant to clause (a) of this Section, the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.02 and 8.05 shall survive.

 

Section 8.02. Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.

 

(A)Subject to the provisions of Section 8.5, all money deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.01, all money and U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04 and all money received by the Trustee in respect of U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 8.03 or 8.04, shall be held in trust and applied by it, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the persons entitled thereto, of the principal and interest for whose payment such money has been deposited with or received by the Trustee or to make mandatory sinking fund payments or analogous payments as contemplated by Sections 8.03 or 8.04.

 

(B)The Company shall pay and shall indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Sections 8.03 or 8.04 or the interest and principal received in respect of such obligations other than any payable by or on behalf of Holders.

 

(C)The Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Order any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money held by it as provided in Sections 8.03 or 8.04 which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are then in excess of the amount thereof which then would have been required to be deposited for the purpose for which such U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations or money were deposited or received. This provision shall not authorize the sale by the Trustee of any U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held under this Indenture.

 

Section 8.03. Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.

 

Unless this Section 8.03 is otherwise specified, pursuant to Section 2.02(T),  to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness on all the outstanding Securities of any Series on the 91st day after the date of the deposit referred to in subparagraph (d) hereof, and the provisions of this Indenture, as it relates to such outstanding Securities of such Series, shall no longer be in effect (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, upon receipt of a Company Order, execute instruments acknowledging the same), except as to:

 

(A)the rights of Holders of Securities of such Series to receive, from the trust funds described in subparagraph (d) hereof, (i) payment of the principal of and each installment of principal of and interest on the outstanding Securities of such Series on the Maturity of such principal or installment of principal or interest and (ii) the benefit of any mandatory sinking fund payments applicable to the Securities of such Series on the day on which such payments are due and payable in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and the Securities of such Series;

 

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(B)the provisions of Sections 2.04, 2.07, 2.08, 8.02, 8.03 and 8.05; and

 

(C)the rights, powers, trust and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and the Company’s obligations in connection therewith;

 

provided that, the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(D)the Company shall have deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for and dedicated solely to the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of all the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(E)such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default  under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(F)no Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit or during the period ending on the 91st day after such date;

 

(G)the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling, or (ii) since the date of execution of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable Federal income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such Opinion of Counsel shall confirm that, the Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amount and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred;

 

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(H)the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating that the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(I)the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for relating to the defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.04. Covenant Defeasance.

 

Unless this Section 8.04 is otherwise specified pursuant to Section 2.02(T) to be inapplicable to Securities of any Series, the Company may omit to comply with respect to the Securities of any Series with any term, provision or condition set forth under Sections 4.02, 4.03, 4.04, 4.05, and 5.01 as well as any additional covenants specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(T) (and the failure to comply with any such covenants shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series under Section 6.01) and the occurrence of any event specified in a supplemental indenture for such Series of Securities or a Board Resolution or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02(Q) and designated as an Event of Default shall not constitute a Default or Event of Default hereunder, with respect to the Securities of such Series, provided that the following conditions shall have been satisfied:

 

(A)With reference to this Section 8.04, the Company has deposited or caused to be irrevocably deposited (except as provided in Section 8.02(c)) with the Trustee as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of such Securities (i) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in Dollars, cash in Dollars and/or U.S. Government Obligations, or (ii) in the case of Securities of such Series denominated in a Foreign Currency (other than a composite currency), money and/or Foreign Government Obligations, which through the payment of interest and principal in respect thereof in accordance with their terms, will provide (and without reinvestment and assuming no tax liability will be imposed on such Trustee), not later than one day before the due date of any payment of money, an amount in cash, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent certified public accountants or investment bank expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge each installment of principal of and interest, if any, on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the Securities of such Series on the dates such installments of interest or principal and such sinking fund payments are due;

 

(B)Such deposit will not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, this Indenture or any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

 

(C)No Default or Event of Default with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

 

(D)The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that Holders of the Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such deposit and covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such deposit and covenant defeasance had not occurred;

 

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(E)The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate stating the deposit was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any other creditors of the Company; and

 

(F)The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to the covenant defeasance contemplated by this Section have been complied with.

 

Section 8.05. Repayment to Company.

 

Subject to applicable abandoned property law, the Trustee and the Paying Agent shall pay to the Company upon request any money held by them for the payment of principal and interest that remains unclaimed for two (2) years. After that, Securityholders entitled to the money must look to the Company for payment as general creditors unless an applicable abandoned property law designates another person.

 

Section 8.06. Reinstatement.

 

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money deposited with respect to Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 8.01 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of such Series and under the Securities of such Series shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to Section 8.1 until such time as the Trustee or the Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money in accordance with Section 8.01; provided, however, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of or interest on [or any Additional Amounts with respect to] any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

 

Article 9. Amendments and waivers

 

Section 9.01. Without Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without the consent of any Securityholder:

 

(A)to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;

 

(B)to comply with Article V;

 

(C)to provide for certificated securities in addition to or in place of uncertificated securities;

 

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(D)to make any change that does not materially adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

 

(E)to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture;

 

(F)to add covenants for the benefit of the Securityholders or to surrender any right or power conferred upon the Company;

 

(G)to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee; or

 

(H)to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of this Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 9.02. With Consent of Holders.

 

The Company and the Trustee may enter into a supplemental indenture with the written consent of the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each Series affected by such supplemental indenture (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series), for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner the rights of the Securityholders of each such Series. Except as provided in Section 6.13, the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series by notice to the Trustee (including consents obtained in connection with a tender offer or exchange offer for the Securities of such Series) may waive compliance by the Company with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities with respect to such Series.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders of Securities under this Section 9.02 to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof. After a supplemental indenture or waiver under this section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to the Holders of Securities affected thereby, a notice briefly describing the supplemental indenture or waiver. Any failure by the Company to mail or publish such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture or waiver.

 

Section 9.03. Limitations.

 

Without the consent of each Securityholder affected, an amendment or waiver may not:

 

(A)reduce the principal amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;

 

(B)reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any Security;

 

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(C)reduce the principal or change the Stated Maturity of any Security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

(D)reduce the principal amount of Discount Securities payable upon acceleration of the Maturity thereof;

 

(E)waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

(F)make the principal of or interest, if any, on any Security payable in any currency other than that stated in the Security;

 

(G)make any change in Sections 6.08, 6.13 or 9.03 (this sentence); or

 

(H)waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, provided that such redemption is made at the Company’s option.

 

Section 9.04. Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.

 

Every amendment to this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series shall be set forth in a supplemental indenture hereto that complies with the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect.

 

Section 9.05. Revocation and Effect of Consents.

 

Until an amendment is set forth in a supplemental indenture or a waiver becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent by the Holder and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security, even if notation of the consent is not made on any Security. However, any such Holder or subsequent Holder may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date of the supplemental indenture or the date the waiver becomes effective.

 

Any amendment or waiver once effective shall bind every Securityholder of each Series affected by such amendment or waiver unless it is of the type described in any of clauses (A) through (H) of Section 9.03. In that case, the amendment or waiver shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security.

 

Section 9.06. Notation on or Exchange of Securities.

 

The Trustee may place an appropriate notation about an amendment or waiver on any Security of any Series thereafter authenticated. The Company in exchange for Securities of that Series may issue and the Trustee shall authenticate upon request new Securities of that Series that reflect the amendment or waiver.

 

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Section 9.07. Trustee Protected.

 

In executing, or accepting the additional trusts created by, any supplemental indenture permitted by this Article or the modifications thereby of the trusts created by this Indenture, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Officer’s Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel or both complying with Section 10.04. The Trustee shall sign all supplemental indentures upon delivery of such an Officer’s Certificate or Opinion of Counsel or both, except that the Trustee need not sign any supplemental indenture that adversely affects its rights.

 

Article 10. Miscellaneous

 

Section 10.01. Trust Indenture Act Controls.

 

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies, or conflicts with another provision which is required or deemed to be included in this Indenture by the Trust Indenture Act, such required or deemed provision shall control.

 

Section 10.02. Notices.

 

Any notice or communication by the Company or the Trustee (including in its capacity as any Notice Agent) to the other will be deemed to have been duly given if in writing and delivered in person or by first class mail (registered or certified, return receipt requested), facsimile transmission, electronic transmission or other similar means of unsecured electronic communication or overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery, or to the other’s address, which initially is as follows:

 

If to the Company:

 

To:        Shift Technologies, Inc.

290 Division Street, Suite 400

San Francisco, California 94103-4234

Attn: General Counsel

 

with a copy (which will not constitute notice) to:

 

Jenner & Block LLP

1155 Avenue of the Americas

New York, NY 10036-2711

Attn: Martin C. Glass

 

If to the Trustee:

 

[_________]

[_________]

[_________]

Attention: [_________]

 

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The Company or the Trustee, by notice to the other, may designate additional or different addresses (including facsimile numbers and electronic addresses) for subsequent notices or communications.

 

All notices and communications (other than those sent to Holders) will be deemed to have been duly given: (A) at the time delivered by hand, if personally delivered; (B) five (5) Business Days after being deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, if mailed; (C) when receipt acknowledged, if transmitted by facsimile, electronic transmission or other similar means of unsecured electronic communication; and (D) the next Business Day after timely delivery to the courier, if sent by overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery.

 

All notices and communications (other than those sent to Securityholders) will be deemed to have been duly given: at the time delivered by hand, if personally delivered; five Business Days after being deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, if mailed; when receipt acknowledged, if transmitted by facsimile or e-mail; and the next Business Day after timely delivery to the courier, if sent by overnight air courier guaranteeing next day delivery.

 

Any notice or communication to a Securityholder shall be mailed by first-class mail to his address shown on the register kept by the Registrar. Failure to mail a notice or communication to a Securityholder of any Series or any defect in it shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders of that or any other Series.

 

If a notice or communication is mailed or published in the manner provided above, within the time prescribed, it is duly given, whether or not the Securityholder receives it. If the Company mails a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall mail a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

In addition to the foregoing, the Trustee agrees to accept and act upon notice, instructions or directions pursuant to this Indenture sent by unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods. If the party elects to give the Trustee e-mail or facsimile instructions (or instructions by a similar electronic method) and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such instructions notwithstanding such instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The party providing electronic instructions agrees to assume all risks arising out of the use of such electronic methods to submit instructions and directions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized instructions, and the risk or interception and misuse by third parties.

 

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture or any Security, where this Indenture or any Security provides for notice of any event (including any notice of redemption) to a Holder of a Global Security (whether by mail or otherwise), such notice shall be sufficiently given to the Depositary for such Security (or its designee) pursuant to the customary procedures of such Depositary.

 

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Section 10.03. Communication by Holders with Other Holders.

 

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to Trust Indenture Act § 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or all Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and anyone else shall have the protection of Trust Indenture Act § 312(c).

 

Section 10.04. Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.

 

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

 

(A)an Officer’s Certificate stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

 

(B)an Opinion of Counsel stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

Section 10.05. Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.

 

Each certificate or opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than a certificate provided pursuant to Trust Indenture Act § 314(a)(4)) shall comply with the provisions of Trust Indenture Act § 314(e) and shall include:

 

(A)a statement that the person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

 

(B)a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

 

(C)a statement that, in the opinion of such person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

 

(D)a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 10.06. Rules by Trustee and Agents.

 

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or a meeting of Securityholders of one or more Series. Any Agent may make reasonable rules and set reasonable requirements for its functions.

 

Section 10.07. Legal Holidays.

 

Unless otherwise provided by Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture hereto for a particular Series, a “Legal Holiday” is any day that is not a Business Day. If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a place of payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period.

 

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Section 10.08. No Recourse Against Others.

 

A director, officer, employee or stockholder (past or present), as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture or for any claim based on, in respect of or by reason of such obligations or their creation. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. The waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issue of the Securities.

 

Section 10.09. Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts and by the parties hereto in separate counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same agreement. The exchange of copies of this Indenture and of signature pages by facsimile or PDF transmission shall constitute effective execution and delivery of this Indenture as to the parties hereto and may be used in lieu of the original Indenture for all purposes. Signatures of the parties hereto transmitted by facsimile or PDF shall be deemed to be their original signatures for all purposes.

 

Section 10.10. Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES, INCLUDING ANY CLAIM OR CONTROVERSY ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THE INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES, SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO CONFLICT OF LAW PRINCIPLES THAT WOULD RESULT IN THE APPLICATION OF ANY LAW OTHER THAN THE LAW OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. EACH OF THE PARTIES HERETO AGREES THAT ANY LEGAL ACTION, SUIT OR PROCEEDING AGAINST IT WITH RESPECT TO ITS OBLIGATIONS, LIABILITIES OR ANY OTHER MATTER ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS INDENTURE OR THE SECURITIES MAY BE BROUGHT IN ANY NEW YORK STATE OR U.S. FEDERAL COURT SITTING IN THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, THE CITY OF NEW YORK AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY CONSENTS AND SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF EACH SUCH COURT IN PERSONAM, GENERALLY AND UNCONDITIONALLY WITH RESPECT TO ANY SUCH ACTION, SUIT OR PROCEEDING FOR ITSELF AND IN RESPECT OF ITS PROPERTIES, ASSETS AND REVENUES. EACH OF THE PARTIES HERETO HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

 

Section 10.11. No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.

 

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan or debt agreement of the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company. Any such indenture, loan or debt agreement may not be used to interpret this Indenture.

 

Section 10.12. Successors.

 

All agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind its successor. All agreements of the Trustee in this Indenture shall bind its successor.

 

Section 10.13. Severability; Entire Agreement

 

If a court of competent jurisdiction declares any provision of this Indenture or the Securities is invalid, illegal or unenforceable, then the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions of this Indenture or the Securities will not in any way be affected or impaired thereby. This Indenture and the exhibits hereto set forth the entire agreement and understanding of the parties related to this transaction and supersede all prior agreements and understandings, written or oral.

 

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Section 10.14. Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.

 

The table of contents and the headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part of this Indenture and will in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions of this Indenture.

 

Section 10.15. Judgment Currency.

 

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.02 of this Indenture with respect to a particular Series of Securities, the Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of or interest or other amount on the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a New York Banking Day, then the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which in accordance with normal banking procedures the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the New York Banking Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender, any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)), in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable, and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture. For purposes of the foregoing, “New York Banking Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in The City of New York on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.

 

Section 10.16. Force Majeure.

 

In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services, it being understood that the Trustee shall use reasonable best efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

 

Section 10.17. U.S.A. PATRIOT Act.

 

The Company acknowledges that, in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions, in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The Company agrees to provide the Trustee with such information as it may request to enable the Trustee to comply with the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act.

 

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Article 11. SINKING FUNDS

 

Section 11.01. Applicability of Article.

 

The provisions of this Article shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of the Securities of a Series if so provided by the terms of such Securities pursuant to Section 2.02 and except as otherwise permitted or required by any form of Security of such Series issued pursuant to this Indenture.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of the Securities of any Series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment” and any other amount provided for by the terms of Securities of such Series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment.” If provided for by the terms of Securities of any Series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 11.02. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any Series as provided for by the terms of the Securities of such Series.

 

Section 11.02. Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company may, in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of any Series to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities (1) deliver outstanding Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable (other than any of such Securities previously called for mandatory sinking fund redemption) and (2) apply as credit Securities of such Series to which such sinking fund payment is applicable and which have been repurchased by the Company or redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Series of Securities (except pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund) or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments or other optional redemptions pursuant to the terms of such Securities, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received by the Trustee, together with an Officer’s Certificate with respect thereto, not later than fifteen (15) days prior to the date on which the Trustee begins the process of selecting Securities for redemption, and shall be credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly. If as a result of the delivery or credit of Securities in lieu of cash payments pursuant to this Section 11.02, the principal amount of Securities of such Series to be redeemed in order to exhaust the aforesaid cash payment shall be less than $100,000, the Trustee need not call Securities of such Series for redemption, except upon receipt of a Company Order that such action be taken, and such cash payment shall be held by the Trustee or a Paying Agent and applied to the next succeeding sinking fund payment, provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent shall from time to time upon receipt of a Company Order pay over and deliver to the Company any cash payment so being held by the Trustee or such Paying Agent upon delivery by the Company to the Trustee of Securities of that Series purchased by the Company having an unpaid principal amount equal to the cash payment required to be released to the Company.

 

Section 11.03. Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than forty-five (45) days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate in respect of a particular Series of Securities) prior to each sinking fund payment date for any Series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officer’s Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment for that Series pursuant to the terms of that Series, the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by payment of cash and the portion thereof, if any, which is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting of Securities of that Series pursuant to Section 11.02, and the optional amount, if any, to be added in cash to the next ensuing mandatory sinking fund payment, and the Company shall thereupon be obligated to pay the amount therein specified. Not less than thirty (30) days (unless otherwise indicated in the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture in respect of a particular Series of Securities) before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.03. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06.

 

Article 12. Subordination

 

Section 12.01. Additional Subordination Terms.

 

Pursuant to Section 2.02, a supplemental indenture hereto pursuant to which Securities are issued or a Board Resolution or Officer’s Certificate in which the terms of the Securities are set forth may set forth subordination provisions and terms.

 

[The Remainder of This Page Intentionally Left Blank; Signature Page Follows]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties to this Indenture have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the date first written above.

 

 Shift Technologies, Inc.
   
 By:                           
  Name:
  Title:

 

 [_________], as Trustee
   
 By:                 
  Name:
  Title:

 

[Signature Page to Indenture] 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 5.1

 

353 N. CLARK STREET CHICAGO, IL 60654-3456

 

 

March 16, 2022

 

Shift Technologies, Inc.

290 Division Street, Suite 400

San Francisco, California 94103

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

 

We have acted as counsel to Shift Technologies, Inc., a Delaware corporation (“Shift” or the “Company”), in connection with the filing by the Company of a Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), with the Securities and Exchange Commission, relating to the offering by the Company of up to $300,000,000 in aggregate amount of one or more of the following securities of the Company: (i) shares of Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”); (ii) shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Preferred Stock”); (iii) debt securities, which may be either senior, senior subordinated or subordinated debt securities (the “Debt Securities”), (iv) warrants to purchase shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock or Debt Securities (the “Warrants”), (v) rights to purchase shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Units (as defined below) or other securities of the Company (the “Rights”); and (vi) units representing any combination of one or more of the foregoing securities (the “Units” and together with the Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Warrants and Rights, the “Securities”), all of which may be sold from time to time and on a delayed or continuous basis, as set forth in the prospectus which forms a part of the Registration Statement, and as to be set forth in one or more supplements to the prospectus.

 

In connection with this opinion letter, we have examined originals, or copies certified or otherwise identified to our satisfaction, of such documents, corporate records and other instruments as we have deemed necessary for the purposes of this opinion letter, including (a) the organizational documents of the Company; (b) certain minutes and records of proceedings of the Company; (c) the Registration Statement, including the prospectus included in the Registration Statement; and (d) the form of indenture included as an exhibit to the Registration Statement (as such indenture may be amended or supplemented from time to time, the “Indenture”).

 

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed the authenticity of all documents submitted to us as originals, the conformity to the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies and the authenticity of the originals of all documents submitted to us as copies. We have also assumed the legal capacity of all natural persons, the genuineness of the signatures of persons signing all documents in connection with which this opinion letter is rendered, the authority of such persons signing on behalf of the parties thereto other than the Company, and the due authorization, execution and delivery of all documents by the parties thereto other than the Company. We have relied, to the extent we deemed appropriate and without independent verification, upon (i) statements and representations of officers and other representatives of the Company as to certain factual matters, (ii) certificates or comparable documents of public officials and (iii) factual information that we have obtained from such other sources as we have deemed reasonable.

 

For purposes of this opinion letter, we have assumed that (i) the issuance, sale, amount, number and terms of any Securities of the Company to be offered from time to time will have been duly authorized and established by proper action of the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee of such board (“Board Action”) consistent with the procedures and terms described in the Registration Statement and in accordance with the Company’s charter and bylaws and applicable Delaware corporate law, in a manner that does not violate any law, government or court-imposed order or restriction or agreement or instrument then binding on the Company or otherwise impair the legal or binding nature of the obligations represented by the applicable Securities; (ii) at the time of offer, issuance and sale of any Securities, the Registration Statement will have been declared effective under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and no stop order suspending its effectiveness will have been issued and remain in effect; (iii) prior to any issuance of shares of Preferred Stock, appropriate certificates of designation will be accepted for record by the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware; (iv) any Debt Securities will be issued pursuant to an indenture for Debt Securities substantially in the form of the Indenture, with items shown in such exhibit as subject to completion, completed in a satisfactory manner; (v) the indenture under which any Debt Securities are issued will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended; (vi) any Warrants will be issued under one or more warrant agreements, each to be between the Company and a financial institution identified therein as a warrant agent; (vii) any Rights will be issued under one or more rights agreements, each to be between the Company and the financial institution identified therein as a rights agent; (viii) any Units will be issued under one or more unit agreements, each to be between the Company and the financial institution identified therein as a unit agent; (ix) if being sold by the issuer thereof, the Securities will be delivered against payment of valid consideration therefor, in excess of any par value thereof, and in accordance with the terms of the applicable Board Action authorizing such sale and any applicable underwriting agreement or purchase agreement and as contemplated by the Registration Statement and/or the applicable prospectus supplement; and (x) the Company will remain a Delaware corporation.

 

Chicago    London    Los Angeles    New York    San Francisco    Washington, dc   WWW.JENNER.COM  

 

 

 

 

To the extent that the obligations of the Company with respect to the Securities may be dependent upon such matters, we assume for purposes of this opinion letter that the other party under the indenture for any Debt Securities, under the warrant agreement for any Warrants, under the rights agreement for any Rights, and under any unit agreement for any Units, namely, the trustee, the warrant agent, the rights agent, or the unit agent, as applicable, is duly organized, validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization; that such other party is duly qualified to engage in the activities contemplated by such indenture, warrant agreement, rights agreement, or unit agreement, as applicable; that such indenture, warrant agreement, rights agreement, or unit agreement, as applicable, has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the other party and constitutes the legal, valid and binding obligation of the other party enforceable against the other party in accordance with its terms; that such other party is in compliance with respect to performance of its obligations under such indenture, warrant agreement, rights agreement, or unit agreement, as applicable, with all applicable laws, rules and regulations; and that such other party has the requisite organizational and legal power and authority to perform its obligations under such indenture, warrant agreement, rights agreement, or unit agreement, as applicable.

 

Based on the foregoing examination and in reliance thereon, and subject to the qualifications, assumptions and limitations set forth in this letter, we are of the opinion that:

 

1. The shares of Common Stock (including any shares of Common Stock duly issued upon the exchange or conversion of Debt Securities or shares of Preferred Stock that are exchangeable for or convertible into shares of Common Stock or upon the exercise of Warrants or Rights and receipt by the Company of any additional consideration payable upon such conversion, exchange, or exercise), upon due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company of certificates therefor, including global certificates, or the entry of the issuance thereof in the books and records of the Company, as the case may be, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

2. The shares of Preferred Stock (including any shares of Preferred Stock duly issued upon the exercise of Warrants or Rights and receipt by the Company of any additional consideration payable upon such exercise), upon due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company of certificates therefor, including global certificates, or the entry of the issuance thereof in the books and records of the Company, as the case may be, will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable.

 

3. The Debt Securities (including any Debt Securities duly issued upon the exercise of Warrants or Rights), upon due execution and delivery of an indenture relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the trustee named therein, and upon authentication by such trustee and due execution and delivery on behalf of the Company in accordance with the indenture and any supplemental indenture relating thereto, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

 

4. The Warrants, upon due execution and delivery of a warrant agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the warrant agent named therein and due authentication of the Warrants by such warrant agent, and upon due execution and delivery of the Warrants on behalf of the Company, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

 

5. The Rights, upon due execution and delivery of a rights agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the rights agent named therein and upon due execution and delivery of one or more certificates bearing such terms on behalf of the Company, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

 

6. The Units, upon due execution and delivery of a unit agreement relating thereto on behalf of the Company and the unit agent named therein and upon due execution and delivery of one or more certificates bearing such terms on behalf of the Company, will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company.

 

Our opinions expressed above are subject to the qualifications that we express no opinion as to the applicability of, compliance with, or effect of (i) any bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, fraudulent transfer, fraudulent conveyance, moratorium or other similar law or judicially developed doctrine in this area (such as substantive consolidation or equitable subordination) affecting the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally, (ii) general principles of equity (regardless of whether enforcement is considered in a proceeding in equity or at law), (iii) public policy considerations which may limit the rights of parties to obtain certain remedies and (iv) other recognized statutory and judicial constraints on enforceability.

 

The opinions expressed herein are limited solely to the following, as currently in effect: (i) the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as amended, and (ii) as to the opinions given in items 3, 4, 5 and 6 above, the laws of the State of New York. We express no opinion with respect to any other laws or any effect that such other laws may have on the opinions expressed herein. This letter is limited to the matters stated herein, and no opinion is implied or may be inferred beyond the matters expressly stated herein. This letter is given only as of the time of its delivery, and we undertake no responsibility to update or supplement this letter after its delivery.

 

We hereby consent to the filing of this letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement filed by the Company and to the references to this firm under the captions “Legal Matters” in the prospectus included in the Registration Statement. In giving these consents, we do not hereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations of the SEC.

 

  Very truly yours,
   
  /s/ Jenner & Block LLP
  Jenner & Block LLP

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 23.1

 

CONSENT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

We consent to the incorporation by reference in this Registration Statement on Form S-3 of our report dated March 16, 2022 relating to the financial statements of Shift Technologies, Inc., appearing in the Annual Report on Form 10-K of Shift Technologies, Inc. for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.  We also consent to the reference to us under the heading "Experts" in such Registration Statement.

/s/ Deloitte & Touche LLP

San Francisco, California

March 16, 2022

 

 

 

Exhibit 107

 

Calculation of Filing Fee Tables

 

Form S-3 

 

(Form Type)

 

Shift Technologies, Inc.

 

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

 

Table 1: Newly Registered and Carry Forward Securities

 

  Security
Type
Security
Class
Title
Fee
Calculation
or Carry
Forward
Rule
Amount
Registered
Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit
Maximum
Aggregate
Offering
Price
Fee
Rate
Amount
of
Registration
Fee
Carry
Forward
Form
Type
Carry
Forward
File
Number
Carry
Forward
Initial
effective
date
Filing Fee
Previously
Paid In
Connection
with
Unsold
Securities
to be
Carried
Forward
Newly Registered Securities
Fees to Be
Paid
Equity Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Equity Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Debt Debt Securities Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Other Warrants Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Other Units Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Other Rights Rule 457(o) (1) (2) (2)   -        
  Unallocated (Universal) Shelf - Rule 457(o) (1) Unallocated (Universal) Shelf $300,000,000 (3) 0.0000927 $27,810        
Fees
Previously
Paid
- - - - - - - -        
Carry Forward Securities
Carry
Forward
Securities
- - - -   -     - - - -
  Total Offering Amounts   $300,000,000   $27,810        
  Total Fees Previously Paid   -   -        
  Total Fee Offsets   -   -        
  Net Fee Due       $27,810        

 

(1) An indeterminate number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities, such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities, such indeterminate number of units, and such indeterminable number of rights, as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $300,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the offering price of such debt securities shall be in such greater principal amount as shall result in an aggregate offering price not to exceed $300,000,000, less the aggregate offering price of any securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities issued hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities issued hereunder. The proposed maximum initial offering price per unit will be determined, from time to time, by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate amounts and numbers of debt securities, common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, exchange, exercise or settlement of any securities registered hereunder, including under any applicable antidilution provisions.  Pursuant to Rule 416(a) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), this Registration Statement shall be deemed to cover any additional number of securities as may be offered or issued from time to time upon stock splits, stock dividends, recapitalizations or similar transactions.
(2) The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the sale and issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
(3)

Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.